Stages of creating a translation text
Valuable translation is possible only on basis of correct and deep understanding the original as unities of contents and a form, on basis of his transfer as whole, with observance of a ratio, characteristic of him, between contents and a form and taking into account separate elements for whole, formed by this ratio. Model of translation is called the description of stages and operations of translation, carrying out which the translator makes a transfer. Model has conditional character and reveals only separate parties of functioning of linguistic mechanism of translation. The model of translation activity includes four levels. Forst level of realization of the translation — identification and primary judgment of words of general structure of the text. At the second level of realization of the translation there is deeper explanation of sense as separate units (words, phrases, phraseological unities), and larger segments of text (offers, text in general). In general scheme of translation refer actions of the translator for reconstruction of semantic and stylistic information of original by target language to the third level. The fourth level is final and estimated actions of translator, or “control self-editing” translator. The situational model of speech activity in translation describes equivalent ways of the same subject descriptions by means of various set of semantic components. As Denotation in this case the whole situation understood as a set of denotation connected by certain relations acts. The transformational translation theory is based on doctrine about nuclear structures of language according to which all existing grammatical correct statements are generated by limited number of the simplest nuclear structures The semantic model of the translation is based on the analysis of semantics of initial and translated texts. Semantics, at same time, is considered as a bunch of elementary meanings — this, the most significant of which are subject to broadcasting in translation. Information model of the translation is based on a statement that any oral or written text and its main unit (word) are carriers of various information which in consciousness of a receptor (translator) has to be apprehended and comprehended in all volume, with all semantic, stylistic, style, functional, situational, esthetic and other features. The communicative model pays special attention to cultural adaptation in translation. Theory “skopos” (Greek. “Purpose”) has arisen within communicative approach to researches of the translation and emphasizes orientation of the transfer on the foreign-language recipient. Unlike other theories, the communicative skopos model is based on perspective, but not on retrospective approach to translation studying. The term “translation unit”, some researchers replace with the term “translem”. Under a translation unit we mean such unit in the source text by which compliance in the target text, but components which separately have no compliances in the target text can be found. In other words, the translation unit is smallest (minimum) language unit in the text on SL which has compliance in the text on TL Unit of any language level can be a translation unit.
The translation at the level of phonemes (graphemes) Such type of the translation at which compliance between units of SL and TL is established at the level of phonemes carries the name translation (or practical) transcriptions. In case compliance is established at the level of graphemes, that is not the sound shape, but writing (a graphic form) of an initial word is transferred, the translation transliteration is available. So, transferring the English proper name of “Lincoln” as “Линкольн”, we replace the English graphemes with Russians, transferring thereby graphic shape of a word, that is we transliterate it. The translation at the level of morphemes To each morpheme of an initial word there corresponds a certain morpheme in the corresponding word TL. For example, such on morphemic compliances it is possible to establish for couple of English “tables” — Russian “столы” where to a root of the initial word table-there corresponds the root of Russian a table — and to plural morpheme — s corresponds a morpheme — ы. The translation at the level of words Much more often the word acts as a translation unit. We will give examples where to each English word there corresponds the Russian word: “He came home”. — “Он пришел домой”. “My brother lives in Moscow” — « Мой брат живет в Москве». The translation at the level of phrases The most striking example of such translation is the translation of idiomatic or set (phraseological) phrases. Their value, as we know, doesn't equal to the sum of values of their components, that is words owing to what the word-by-word translation of such phrases is in most cases impossible. E.g., English, “to catch fire” — Russian. «загореться». The translation at the level of offers Besides it often takes place when the translated sentences on the value are idiomatic, that is their value isn't equal to the sum of values of the words and phrases entering them. Proverbs are among such offers, for example: «Every dark cloud has a silver lining». — «Нет худа без добра». The translation at the level of the text At last, take place and such cases when even offers can't serve as translation units and when all text being translated in general, that is all group of the independent offers united within one speech piece appears such unit. Such phenomenon in prose, probably, is a rare exception; however in such specific type of the translation as poetry translation it is quite usual. The target text — the main translation unit The translation analysis of the text in a sense is the discursive analysis, he provides understanding at the level of value and at the level of sense that includes linguistic aspect, extralinguistic (cognitive, discursive) aspect (what speak about) and pragmatical aspect (understanding of the purpose of communication) For judgment of nature of translation process and concrete action of the translator for transformation of the text on SL(source language) in the text on TL the great
value acquires the appeal to a role of linguistic and extralinguistic information in activity of the translator, to the theoretical models created for the description of translation process to genre and style and functional characteristics of the text, social determinants of cross-cultural communication and also data of cognitive linguistics. Stages of creation a target text Translation process or transfer in narrow sense of this term are called actions of translator for creation of the target text (actually the translation). Translation process includes, at least, two stages: explanation by translator of contents of the original and choice of a variant of translation. As a result of these stages transition from the text of the original to the target text is carried out. At the same time actions of translator are often intuitive and translator sometimes doesn't realize, then he was guided at the choice of this or that option. It, however, doesn't mean that such choice is completely casual or any. It in many respects is defined by a ratio of ways of creation of messages in SL and TL. The translation theory seeks to find out how there is a transition from the original to the target text what regularities are the cornerstone of actions of the translator. Real translation process is carried out in a brain of translator and is inaccessible for direct observation and research. Therefore, studying of translation process is made by an indirect way by means of development of various theoretical models, with bigger or smaller nearness describing translation process in general or his any party. In translation process it is possible to allocate two stages. The first — extraction or explanation of information from the original — the analysis. The second — all procedure of the choice of necessary language means of TL– synthesis. At the first stage translator has to understand information which is contained both in the most translated piece, and in a linguistic and situational context of original. On the basis of this information he draws conclusions about what he should translate. The problem arising at clarification of contents of the text of the original in many respects coincides with problems of understanding of the text the recipient. Unlike the translator he perceives everything without intention to translate. At the translator understanding is guided by the translation, he needs to draw a final conclusion on the maintenance of a piece of the text at the first stage. By transfer of value of the English verb, the translator seeks to take information on the nature of course of process of a context to draw a conclusion on a verb of perfective or imperfective aspect. The similar procedure (work with a context) takes place at explanation of a lexical meaning of a word. Thus besides an ordinary procedure of extraction of contents from the text, the translator projects on the original possible compliances in TL and seeks to find additional data which would allow him to make a right choice in a context. Second stage of translation process (synthesis). It is the choice of means in TL. for creation of the target text. The aspiration to equivalent transfer of the original imposes restrictions for use of means in TL. One from the main contents in
translation process — it is the choice of option of the smallest losses. To construct grammatical and semantic connected statement, It is necessary to decide what elements of equivalence need to use. At this stage there is a problem search of translation compliances. And influences of some factors on translation process. He can be presented as process of consecutive substitution of instead some units the original, equivalent units of TL. which are called translation compliances. On degree of regularity of the use, compliance happen constant (regular), alternative and occasional. Constant compliances are used always when in the text of the original this unit appears. In TL there are several units which can be used by transfer of one unit of the original. These are alternative compliances. Occasional compliances are irregular, casual versions of the used sign or structure in translation. This classification of compliances gives the chance to differentiate three types of actions of the translator in the course of creation of the target text. Definitions of the concept “translation” in linguistic works • V.N. Komissarov: “The translation is a type of language mediation at which in other language the text which is fully replacing the original is created”. • R.K. Minyar-Beloruchev: “A science object about the translation is communication with use of 2 languages where activity of the translator or the translation which represents one types of speech activity acts as the central link”. • L.S. Borkhudarov: “The translation is an certain type of transformation, namely, language transformation”. • A.D. Schweitzer: “The translation is a unidirectional and two-phase process of cross-cultural communication ...”. • A.V. Fedorov: “The translation is a speech work in his ratio with the original and in connection with features of two languages and with material belonging to these or those genre categories”.